Chemistry Notes

Periodic Table of the Elements

⟵―――――――――― Columns ――――――――――⟶
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
⟵――――――― Valence Electron Groups ―――――――⟶
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Alkalai Metals
Noble Gases

H
Alkalai Earths

Semi-Metals

Non-Metals
Halogens

He
1

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F
10
Ne
2
11
Na
12
Mg

/⟵――――――――― Transition Metals ―――――――――⟶\
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
3
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
4
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
5
55
Cs
56
Ba
57 - 71
Lantha
nide
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Ti
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
6
87
Fr
88
Ra
89-103
Actinide
104
Rf
105
Rf
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
7
Lathanoids
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinoids
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

~ Key ~

Alkali Metals
Alkali Earths
Transition Metals
Basic Metals
Semi Metals
Non Metals
Halogens
Noble Gases
Lanthanide
Actinide
Group 1 - Alkalai Metals
Group 2 - Alkalai Earths
Group 3 - Boron Group
Group 4 - Carbon Group
Group 5 - Nitrogen Group
Group 6 - Oxygen Group
Group 7 - Halogens
Group 8 - Noble Gases
📓 Chemistry Notes 📓
CHEMISTRY and ATOMIC PHYSICS are INSEPARABLE.
Electrons e- have a charge of -1. They were discovered in 1897. Their Anti-Particle is the Positron.
Protons P+ have a charge of +1. They were discovered in 1866. Their Anti-Particle is the Anti-Proton. They are 1836 times heavier than Electrons e-.
Neutrons No have no charge. They were discovered in 1932. Their Anti-Particle is the Antineuton. They are 1838 times heavier than Electrons e-.
⚛ Atomic numbers signify number of Protons in the Nucleus
⚛ Isotopes are Elements containing extra numbers of Neutrons in the Nucleus
⚛ Chemistry is concerned with the Electromagnetic Force which is 1030 times stronger than Gravity, but 109 times weaker than the Strong Nuclear Force.
⚛ The Strong Nuclear Force binds the Nucleus and is 1039 times stronger than Gravity
⚛ Iron, Fe-56, has the largest stable Nucleus. Larger Nuclei are all unstable to some degree.
⚛ Isotopes are Elements containing extra numbers of Neutrons in the Nucleus
All Elements with atomic numbers greater than 83 are radioactive and exhibit spontaneous disintegration of their atomic nucleus, usually given as a Half-Life of the element. i.e. the amount of time that half of any given sample will have decayed into other Elements.
🔬
Valence Electrons are the only Electrons that participate in chemical bonding. They usually are the outermost electrons of an atom. When two or more Elements share Electrons in this way it is known as a Covalent Bond.
⚛ Alkalai Metals (Valence Group 1) have 1 Valence Electron that can be shared with another element
⚛ Alkalai Earths (Valence Group 2) have 2 Valence Electron that can be shared with other Element(s)
⚛ Halogens (Valence Group 6), the OXYGEN Group, have 6 Valence Electrons and need 2 more to complete their Valence Electron shell
⚛ Halogens (Valence Group 7) have 7 Valence Electrons and need 1 more to complete their Valence Electron shell
⚛ The Noble Gases have their Valence electron shells completely filled and are extremely stable and non-reactive
STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure) is defined as 273.15 °K (0°C, 32°F) and 100 kPa (1 Bar).
👨‍🔬
The Periodic Table of the Elements was first created by Dimitri Mendeleev, in 1869. He arranged the known Elements according to their Atomic Mass and physical properties. He had the insight to leave spaces in the table for Elements that he thought should exist but were not known at the time.
☉ Electron Shell Theory ☉
ShellMax No.
Electrons
12
28
318
432
550
I n Classic Physics, Electrons orbit around the Nucleus in Electron Shells. The radius of each orbit corresponds to specific quantum energy levels. Each shell may hold ONLY so many Electrons and NO Electrons can exist 'between' the shells. Electron shells have one or more Electron Subshells (s, p, d, f) whose names (Sharp, Principal, Diffuse, & Fundemental) come from Niels Bohr and his Shell Model of the atom.

W hen an Atom absorbs energy an Electron instantaneously 'jumps' from one orbital to a higher orbital in discrete steps known as quanta. It is NEVER 'in-between'. Conversely, when an Atom gives up energy an Electron instantaneously 'jumps' to a lower orbital, and releases a quanta of energy in the form of a Photon.

I n Real-World Physics however we must take into account Einstein's General Theory of Relativity AND make use of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. These tell us that Electron positions and momentums are impossible to know exactly. Instead, we must consider Electrons within volumes known as Probability Distributions. However, for most Chemical Reactions, near STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure) the Classical Physics interpretation is more than adequate.
⚗ Common Chemical Formulas ⚗
NameFormula
Acetic Acid (Vinegar)CH3COOH
Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin)HOOCC6H4OOCCH3
Algin (Alginate)(C6H8O6) n
AmmoniaNH3
Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C)H2C6H6O6
Caffeine (1,3,7-Trimethylxantine)C8H10N4O2
Calcium Carbonate (Limestone)CaCO3
Carbon DioxideCO2
Citric AcidC6H8O7
Dextrose (Dextrorotatory Glucose)C6H12O6
Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol)C2H5OH
Hydrochloric (Muriatic) AcidHCl
Hydroxyl IonOH
Hydrogen PeroxideH2O2
Iron Pyrite (Fools Gold)FeS2
Isopropyl Alcohol (Rubbing Alcohol)C3H7OH
Magnisium ChlorideMgCl
OzoneO3
Potasium ChlorideKCl
Potasium IodideKI
Potasium Nitrate (Saltpeter)KNO3
Silica (Silicon Dioxide)SiO2
Sodium Alginate (Alginic Acid)(C6H7NaO6) n
Sodium Chloride (Table Salt)NaCl
Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda, Lye)NaOH
Sodium Hypochlorite (Bleach)NaClO
Sodium IodideNaI
Sodium PhosphateNaPO4
Sucrose (Sugar)C12H22O11
Sulphuric AcidH2SO4
Strontium SulphateSrSO4
Tri Sodium Phosphate (TSP)Na3PO4
WaterH2O
Alcohols
AlcoholFormula
Methyl Alcohol (Methanol, Wood Alcohol)CH3OH
Ethyl Alcohol (Ethanol, Drinking Alcohol)C2H5OH
Isopropyl Alcohol (Rubbing Alcohol)C3H7OH
Alkanes & Alkenes
Alkanes & Alkenes are Hydrocarbons made from only Hydrogen and Carbon. Since Carbon has 4 Valence Electrons it can share 4 Electrons individually or 2 pairs of two Electrons each. This yields two families of compounds…
Alkanes have only single bonds and are designated as Saturated (CnH2n+2)
Alkenes have double bonds and are designated as Unsaturated (CnH2n)

AlkaneFormula
MethaneCH4
EthaneC2H6
PropaneC3H8
ButaneC4H10
PentaneC5H12
HexaneC6H14
HeptaneC7H16
OctaneC8H18
AlkeneFormula
MethyleneCH2
EthyleneC2H4
PropyleneC3H6
1-buteneC4H8
1-penteneC5H10
1-hexeneC6H12
1-hepteneC7H14
1-octeneC8H16
Lewis Dot Diagrams
A   Lewis Electron Dot Diagram is a tool that shows how an Atom's Valence Electrons are shared so they form Covalent Bonds. The Diagram indicates the number of shared and unshared valence electrons. When shared, their outermost shells are complete and the Molecule becomes stable.
Methane CH4
Ethylene C2H4